The Datavizprojekt gives you an extensive list of types of diagrams, grouped by type (e.g.: chart, diagram, geospatial, plot, table), sorted according to the type of input you can provide and the function it fulfils (e.g.: comparison, concept visualisation, correlation, distribution, geographical data, part to whole, trend over time).
This project is a great way to get a first impression at a glance what kind of visualization goes well with the set of data you have.
Or go back to Basic Visual Grammar.